Quality Management (TQM)
Total Quality Management
is a structured system for managing the quality of products, processes,
and resources of an organization in order to
its internal and external
as well as its suppliers. Its main objective is sustained (if not
which is accomplished by systematic methods for problem solving,
breakthrough achievement, and sustenance of good results
There is no
standard or hard-line procedure for implementing TQM. Every company can
practice TQM in a manner it sees best for its organization. However, a
companyís TQM program must always be
i.e., everyone within an organization must practice TQM in the
structured manner set forth by management.
companies today have chosen to adopt a TQM program thatís patterned
after an already established TQM model, e.g., the Deming Application
Prize, the Malcolm Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence, the ISO
Series of Standards, etc.
TQM may be
considered as a
of principles and processes that have been proven to be effective in
business quality management over time. It goes back to the teachings of
Drucker, Juran, Deming, Ishikawa, etc, who each have studied and
developed ideas for improving organizational management.
consists of the following steps: 1) the company reviews the needs of its
customers and if these are being delivered by the company; 2) the
company plans the activities needed (both day-to-day and long-term
activities) to meet these customer needs; 3) the company establishes and
stabilizes the processes required to deliver the products and services
needed by the customer; 4) the company implements systems to further
improve its processes, products, and services. Note that Steps 1-4
above constitute a
and may be iterated indefinitely for continuous improvement.
The SDCA Cycle
cycle is a
popular model for
a process. A process needs to be stabilized through standardization to
make it more measurable, predictable, and controllable. Improvements can
not and must not be made to a process unless it is stable.
As its name
indicates, it has 4 distinct steps: 1)
which refers to the definition and documentation of operating
procedures, process requirements, and other process specifications to
ensure that the process is always executed in a standard and repeatable
which refers to conformance to the defined standards; 3)
which is the act of verifying if conformance to the standards results in
process stability (high process
which is the response appropriate for the observed effects of the
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In step 4, if
the process has become stable with implementation of the standards, then
the standards are made permanent and even deployed more widely. If the
effects on process stability are negligible or even negative, the cycle
is repeated using a different set of standard specifications.
The PDCA Cycle
cycle, also known as the
is a popular model for continuous improvement. As the name indicates, it
consists of 4 distinct steps: 1)
which refers to the act of identifying opportunities for improvement and
identifying ways of achieving these improvements; 2)
which refers to the actual implementation of the actions needed to
effect the change; 3)
which refers to the act of verifying whether the implemented changes
resulted in the desired improvements; and 4)
which is what one does in response to the effects observed.
In step 4, if
the effects observed are the desired improvements, then the actions
implemented are made permanent and even deployed more widely. If the
effects are negligible or even negative, the cycle is repeated using a
different plan of action.
Principles of TQM
1) Quality can
and must be managed.
has a customer to delight.
not the people, are the problem.
employee is responsible for quality.
must be prevented, not just fixed.
must be measured so it can be controlled.
improvements must be continuous.
Quality goals must be based on customer requirements.
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