Impurities in Silicon and their Properties  

        

Table 1 lists elements that can act as dopants or impurities in silicon as well as their relevant properties.

  

 
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Table 1. Silicon Impurities and their Properties

Dopant Type Tetrahedral Radius (angstroms) Misfit Factor Acceptor Level, distance from valence band (eV) Donor Level, distance from conduction band (eV)
As n 1.18 0 - 0.049
P n 1.1 0.068 - 0.044
Sb n 1.36 0.153 - 0.039
Al p 1.26 0.068 0.057 -
B p 0.88 0.254 0.045 -
Ga p 1.26 0.068 0.065 -
In d 1.44 0.22 0.16 -
Ag d 1.52 0.29 0.89 0.79
Au d 1.5 0.272 0.57 0.76
Cu d 1.28 - 0.24, 0.37, 0.52 -
Mo d - - 0.3 -
Ni d 1.24 - 0.21, 0.76 -
O d - - - 0.16
Pt d - - 0.42, 0.92 0.85
Ti d - - 0.26 -
Zn d - - 0.31, 0.56 -
Fe d 1.26 - - -

            

Type d means 'deep impurity'.

            

Reference:  Sorab K. Ghandhi, VLSI Fabrication Principles, Wiley-Interscience

       

See Also:  DiffusionIon Implant

     

 
 
 
 

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