Quality System Requirements QS-9000,
is an international quality management system (QMS) standard for the automotive industry
originally developed by and for the 'Big Three' of the American auto
namely, Daimler Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General
This standard embraces the 1994 ISO-9001
Standard (now obsolete) with emphasis on customer satisfaction and process control. In
addition to the 1994 ISO-9001elements, it also incorporates
certain requirements that are particular to the automotive industry. The
QS-9000 was introduced to the industry in 1994, and then underwent a
revision in 1998.
The QS-9000 quality
standard must be complied to by suppliers of automotive production
materials, production and service parts, heat treatment, painting,
plating, and other finishing services. Not all suppliers of the
automotive industry are therefore required to be certified to QS-9000
QS-9000 is divided into three (3) sections: 1) all the twenty (20)
ISO-9001 elements plus certain automotive requirements; 2) system
requirements defined by the 'Big Three' for their own use, which are
referred to as 'Additional Requirements' in the standard; and 3)
customer-specific requirements, which are requirements that are unique
to every individual automotive or truck manufacturer.
activity requirements of the QS-9000 include the following: 1) Quality
System Assessment (QSA); 2) Advanced Product
Planning and Control Plan (APQP); 3) Production Part Approval Process (PPAP);
4) Potential Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA); 5) Measurement
Systems Analysis (MSA); and 6) Statistical Process Control (SPC).
Certification to the QS-9000 consists of the following basic
steps: 1) Review of the QS9000 document standard and its support
literature and software; 2) Organizational preparation and assembly of a
team that will oversee the certification; 3) Development of a Quality
Manual that meets the QS-9000 requirements; 4) Development of support
documents for your Quality Manual; 5) Implementation of the quality
management systems defined in your Quality Manual; 6) Pre-assessment of
your quality systems (optional); 7) Certification to the QS-9000; 8)
Continual assessment of your quality systems against QS-9000
requirements to maintain your registration.
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certification requirements are said to be very demanding,
with only a few selected third party entities duly authorized by the
automotive industry to give QS-9000 certifications. Nonetheless,
many big companies that got certified to QS-9000 standards have saved
millions of dollars through defect and waste reduction, on-time delivery
performance improvements, and of course, market share increases.
The main weakness of the
QS-9000 is the fact that it is based on the ISO-9001:1994, which has
been obsoleted and replaced by ISO-9001:2000. As such, automotive
companies are expected to transition into using the
ISO/TS-16949 as the
new standard for the automotive industry's quality management systems.
The ISO 9000;
The ISO 14000;
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