Failure Analysis (FA) Techniques
Failure Analysis Techniques,
or simply FA Techniques,
are the individual analytical steps performed to complete the failure
Each FA technique in the FA process is designed
to provide its own, specialized information that will contribute to the
determination of the failure mechanism of the sample
Although FA techniques are generally independent of each other, their
results must nonetheless be consistent and corroborative
in order to arrive at a strong conclusion for the FA cycle.
During the FA
process, all applicable non-destructive FA techniques must be performed
prior to the conduct of any destructive FA technique. An FA
technique that alters a sample permanently in whatever way (whether
visual, mechanical, chemical, or electrical) is considered
On the other hand,
techniques are those which do not cause any permanent change in the
sample, ideally speaking. Table 1 shows links to FA techniques commonly
used in the semiconductor industry.
Table 1. Semiconductor FA
some non-destructive techniques
if improperly performed on the sample. Examples of these are curve
tracing and bench testing, which can lead to electrical overstressing of
the sample if improperly undertaken.
X-ray Radiography; Curve Tracing;
Hot Spot Detection;
SAM; Focused Ion Beam;
ESCA or XPS;
Analysis; FA Lab
Equipment; Basic FA
Package Failures; Die
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